Skip to main content


Achievements of E. Shreedharan

E. Shreedharan
E Sreedharan; popularly known as the "Metro Man"is a retired Indian Engineering Service (IES) officer . He is acknowledged for changing the face of public transportation in India for building the Konkan Railway route and the Delhi Metro. Full name: Dr. Elattuvalapil Sreedharan Born: 12 June 1932, Palakkad district, Kerala, India. Studied Civil engineering at Government Engineering College, Andhra Pradesh.

Worked as a lecturer in Civil engineering at Government Polytechnic, Kozhikode for a short tenure. Later,  Shreedharan joined theIndian Railway Service of Engineers (IRSE), after clearing Engineering Service Examination in 1953. Awards: Padma Shri (2001),  Padma Vibhushan (2008) Named one of Asia's Heroes by TIME magazine in 2003

Mind blowing Achievements of Dr. E. Shreedharan

1. The Pamban BridgeDate: 22nd of December in 1964 Location: Rameshwaram town
Recent posts

Swami Vivekananda Quotes

Strength is life, weakness is death.
Arise, awake, sleep no more; within each of you there is the power to remove all wants and miseries. Believe this, and that power will be manifested.
Morality give strength; the immoral are always weak.
Be a hero. Always say, 'I have no fear'. Fear is sin, fear is hell, fear is unrighteousness, fear is wrong life.All the negative thoughts and ideas that are in the world have proceeded from the evil spirit of fear.
Doing is very great, but that comes from thinking. Fill the brain, therefore, with high thoughts, highest ideals, place them day and night before you, and out of that will come great work.
What we think we become.
Each thought is a little hammer blow on the lump of iron which our bodies are, manufacturing out of it what we want to be.
Like fire in a piece of flint, knowledge exists in the mind; suggestion is the friction which brings it out.
Men, men these are wanted: everything else will be ready, but strong, vigourov, believing young me…

Pile Foundation

When the soil at or near the ground surface is unable in bearing the load of super-structure, deep foundations are required to transmit the load to deeper strata.

The most common types of deep foundations are the pile, piers and caissons.

A deep foundation is generally much more expensive than a shallow foundation. It should adopted only when shallow foundation is not feasible.

A pile is a slender structural member made of steel, concrete or wood. A pile is either driven into the soil or formed in-situ by excavating a hole and feeling it with concrete.

Necessity of pile foundation:Pile foundation is used in following conditions:
1.When the strata at or just below the ground surface is highly compressible and very weak to support the load transmitted by structure.
2.When the plan of the structure is irregular relative to its outline or load distribution. It would cause non-uniform settlement if a shallow foundation is constructed.
3.Pile foundations are required for the transfer of structura…

Pozzolanic Materials (Pozzolanas) and their Uses

Pozzolanas are materials containing reactive silica which in themselves posses little or no cementitious value but which combines with lime in finely divided form in the presence of water to produce cementing compounds.

The name pozzolana was given to such material in honour of the place Puzzolini in Italy where it was found that Roman had built hydraulic structures by mixing lime and the volcanic ash, thus producing hydraulic lime which can set under water.

Pozzolanic Materials:
Pozzolanic Materials are classified into two groups:

Natural Pozzolanas such as volcanic ashArtificial Pozzolanas such as fly ash.In India, we do not have many deposits of natural Pozzolanas. The commonly used pozzolanic materials are:

1. Surki:
Surki was once very popular in use and readily available in India. Nowadays it is not readily available. Ordinary Surki is made by grinding well burn broken brickbats, tiles etc. Reactive surki, which has superior lime combining properties is obtained by calcining selected …

Working Stress Method

Working Stress Method is the traditional method of design not only for Reinforced Concrete but also for structural steel and timber design. The conceptual basis of the Working Stress Method assumes that the structural material behaves in a linear elastic manner and that appropriate safety can be ensured by suitably limiting the stresses in the material due to the presumed working loads (service loads) on the structure.
Working Stress Method also assumes that both the steel reinforcement and concrete act together and are perfectly elastic at all stages, and hence the modular ratio can be used to determine the stresses in steel and concrete. The stresses under the working loads are obtained by applying the methods of ‘strength of materials’ like the simple bending theory. The limitations due to non-linearity and buckling are neglected.
The stresses caused by the ‘characteristic’ or service loads are checked against the permissible (allowable) stress, which is a fraction of the ultimate or …

Civil Graduate 2.0

Hi, I am Himanshu Mishra, the man behind civil graduate[dot]com.
In last three years, our team have written hundreds of articles on various civil engineering topics. The articles have been read more than 100 thousands times throughout the world.

We had a mission to make this one of the top website in civil engineering niche. We were partially successful. At our peak, it had an alexa ranking of 17K in India.
Now I am feeling something strange. The information we shared in our articles is like a body without spirit. This is a blog and does not mean to be a textbook.

Now the blog is going to be more like 'Diary of a Civil Engineer' rather than an information sharing website.
I am grateful to the interns who put their faith in me and gave strengths to my vision, to friends who did not leave any stone unturned to make the blog popular. Last, but not the least, I am thankful to the readers who have been my constant source of encouragements. I shall try my best to reach you every weekend.


Compensation by Ralph Waldo Emerson (Summary)

The equilibrating law of Karma, is that of action and reaction, cause and effect, sowing and reaping. 

In the course of natural righteous, each man by his thoughts and actions, become the molder of his destiny.

Whatever universal energies he himself, wisely or unwisely, has set in motion must return to him as their starting point, like a circle inexorably completing itself.

The world look like a mathematical equation, which turn it how you will balance itself. Every secret is told, every crime is punished, every virtue rewarded, every wrong redressed, in silence and certainity.

Types of Stairs

Stairs are an important component of a building and often the only means of providing access between the various floors of a building. The staircase essentially consists of landings and flights. Often, the flight is an inclined slab consisting of risers and treads (collectively called the going of a staircase), whereas the landing is a horizontal slab.From a structural point of view, a staircase consists of slab or beam elements.
Definition of Terms:

Tread or going of step: Tread is the horizontal upper portion of a step where the foot rests. Going to step is the horizontal distance of the tread minus the nosing.
Nosing: Sometimes, the tread is projected outwards for aesthetics or to provide more space; this projection is called the nosing. Many times, the nosing is provided by the finishing over the concrete tread.
Riser and rise: Rise is the vertical distance between two consecutive treads and riser is the vertical portion of the step.
Flight or going of stair: Flight is a series of step…