Soil (Introduction)

Word 'Soil' is derived from the latin word solium which means the upper layer of the earth that may be dug or plowed.

Definition of Soil:

The soil is defined as an unconsolidated material, composed of solid particles produced by the disintegration of rocks.

Origin of Soil:

Soils are formed by weathering of rocks due to mechanical or chemical decomposition
Soil may be considered as an incidental material obtained from the geological cycle which goes on continuously in nature.

Geological Cycle:

The geological cycle consists of erosion, transportation, deposition and upheaval of soil


  • Exposed rocks are eroded and degraded by various physical and chemical processes.
  • The products of erosion are picked up by agencies of transportation, such as water and the wind, and are carried to new locations where they are deposited.
  • This shifting of the material disturbs the equilibrium of forces  on the earth and cause large scale earth movements and upheavals. 

.This process results in further exposure of rocks and the geological cycle gets repeated. . . .