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Types of Buildings



A Building indicates anything that is built with wall and a roof.
The term 'Building' in civil engineering is used to mean a structure having various components like foundations, walls, columns. Floors, roofs, doors, windows, ventilators, stairs, various surface finishes etc.


 As per National Building Code of India, Buildings are classified into nine groups as follows:
  1. Group A: Residential Buildings
  2. Group B: Educational Buildings
  3. Group C: Institutional Buildings
  4. Group D: Assembly Buildings
  5. Group E: Business Buildings
  6. Group F: Mercantile Buildings
  7. Group G: Industrial Buildings
  8. Group H: Storage Buildings
  9. Group I: Hazardous Buildings

Residential Buildings:

The Buildings which are provided with sleeping accommodation for normal residential purposes, with or without cooking, or dining or both the facilities except any building except classified under Group C are Called Residential Buildings.

Educational Buildings

Any school, college Building or day-care centre used for an educational purpose for more than 8 hours a week involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation and which is not covered by Group D comes under this group.

Institutional Buildings

This group is further divided into three subgroups:-

(i). Sub-group C-1: Hospitals and Sanitaria
(ii). Sub-group C-2: Custodial Institutions such as Orphanages, homes for aged etc.
(iii). Sub-group C-3: Penal Institutions such as Jails, mental hospitals etc.

Assembly Buildings:

Any Building or part of Building like theatres, assembly halls, auditoriums, museums, places of worship, dance halls, transportation services, recreation, social, religious, patriotic,  civil, travel or similar purposes is included in this group.

Business Buildings:

Any Building or part of a Building which is used for the transaction of business for keeping of accounts and record and similar purposes, barber shops, beauty parlours is included in this group.

Mercantile Buildings: 

These includes any building or part of Building, which is used as shops, offices, stores, markets, showrooms etc.

Industrial Buildings: 

These includes any Building or part of Buildings in which products or materials of all kinds are fabricated, assembled or processed.

Storage Buildings:

These includes any Building or part of Building which is primarily used for the storage of goods, wares or merchandise.

Hazardous Buildings: 

These includes any Building or part of Building which is used as storage, handling, manufacturing or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials, vehicles or animals.