- Footings distribute the load they receive from columns or walls to the soil underneath in such a way that settlement, particularly uneven or relative settlement, of the structure, is limited and failure of the underlying soil is avoided.
- The size of footings is so chosen that the pressure under them is less than the allowable bearing pressure of the soil.
- When there are lateral or uplift loads, footings are required to provide sufficient resistance to sliding and overturning.
- If good bearing strata are not available at a reasonable depth, the use of deep foundations may be warranted.
Types of footings:
(a) Wall footing
(b) Isolated spread footing
(c) Sloped footing
(d) Combined footing
(e) Raft foundation
(f) Pile foundation