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Footings (Foundations)

  • Footings distribute the load they receive from columns or walls to the soil underneath in such a way that settlement, particularly uneven or relative settlement, of the structure, is limited and failure of the underlying soil is avoided.
  • The size of footings is so chosen that the pressure under them is less than the allowable bearing pressure of the soil.
  • When there are lateral or uplift loads, footings are required to provide sufficient resistance to sliding and overturning.
  • If good bearing strata are not available at a reasonable depth, the use of deep foundations may be warranted.

Types of footings:

(a) Wall footing 
(b) Isolated spread footing 
(c) Sloped footing 
(d) Combined footing 
(e) Raft foundation 
(f) Pile foundation


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